county of hawaii: AGRICULTURE

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Treatments For Exporting Hawaiian Fruit

The following list of main tropical fruits in Hawaii and quarantine treatments developed to disinfest fruits of fruit flies and other insect pests before shipment from Hawaii to the US mainland. Treatments are categorized as submitted, proposed, or accepted:

Submitted-data for treatment submitted, usually in the form of a technical report, to USDA-APHIS for comment. First step before a rule is proposed.

Proposed-published in the Federal Register to serve notice to the public and give interested parties an opportunity to participate in the rule making process before the adoption of the final rules.

Accepted-published in the Federal Register as a regulatory document having general applicability and legal effect. Treatment is said to be "on the books." These treatments can be used to ship fruit to the mainland.

For each fruit listed, accepted treatments, if they exist, are underlined. Nearly all treatments have been developed to disinfest fruit for our 4 fruit fly species: Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, melon fly, and Malaysian fruit fly. A quarantine treatment for mangos is the exception because of the mango seed weevil which is tolerant of fruit fly treatments. The efficacy of accepted treatments for control on non-fruit fly pests infesting fruits is being tested.

Abiu

  • Irradiation proposed-250 Gy-treatment carried out only in approved facility in Hawaii or in non-fruit fly supporting areas of the mainland US. Other conditions apply.

Atemoya

  • Irradiation proposed-250 Gy-treatment carried out only in approved facility in Hawaii or in non-fruit fly supporting areas of the mainland US. Other conditions apply.

Avocado

  • Cold treatment-cv. 'Sharvil', 12 days at < 1.1 degrees C (34 degrees F), 14 days at < 1.67 degrees C (35 degrees C), 16 days at < 2.2 degrees C (36 degrees C); requires heat shock pretreatment

Bananas

  • Nonhost status proposed-green bananas, cv. 'Williams', 'Valery' and 'dwarf Brazilian'. Regulation includes specific conditionsÓ bananas must be picked green and packed for shipment within 24 hours after harvest; no bananas from bunches containing prematurely ripe fingers; and must be inspected and found to be free of pests and defects.

Carambola

  • Cold treatment-storage for 10 days at < 0.0 degrees C (32 degrees F), 11 days at < 0.6 degrees C (33 degrees F), 12 days at < 1.1 degrees C (34 F); 14 days at < 1.67 degrees C (35 degrees F).
  • Irradiation-250 Gy-treatment carried out only in an approved facility in Hawaii or in non-fruit fly supporting areas of the mainland US.

Citrus

  • Cold treatment-storage for 10 days at < 0.0 degrees C (32 degrees F), 11 days at < 0.6 degrees C (33 degrees F), 12 days at < 1.1 degrees C (34 degrees F); 14 days at < 1.67 degrees C (35 degrees F), 16 days at < 2.2 degrees C (36 degrees F)
  • High temperature forced air-fruit core temperature heated to >47.2 degrees C (117 degrees F) in not less than 4 hours.

Durian

  • Nonhost status for fruit flies proposed-must be inspected and free of surface pests.

Longan

  • Hot water immersion submitted (as an addendum to lychee treatment)-49 degrees C (120 degrees F) or above for 20 minutes. Irradiation proposed-250 Gy-treatment carried out only in an approved facility in Hawaii or in non-fruit fly supporting areas of the mainland US. Other conditions apply.

Lychee

  • Hot water immersion-49 degrees C (120 degrees F) or above for 20 minutes.
  • Irradiation-250 Gy- treatment carried out only in an approved facility in Hawaii or in non-fruit fly supporting areas of the mainland US.

Mango

  • Irradiation submitted-300 Gy, for fruit flies and mango seed weevil.

Mangosteen

  • Possible nonhost for fruit flies. Pest risk assessment in preparation.

Papaya

  • High temperature forced air-fruit core temperature heated to >47.2 degrees C (117 degrees F) in not less than 4 hours.
  • Vapor heat-fruit core temperature heated by saturated water vapor to 44.4 degrees C (112 degrees F). Hold fruit temperature at 44.4 degrees F for 8.75 hours, then cool immediately, OR, fruit core temperature heated to >47.2 degrees C (117 degrees F) in not less than 4 hours.
  • Irradiation-250 Gy-treatment carried out in an approved facility in Hawaii or in non-fruit fly supporting areas of the mainland US.

Pineapple

  • Nonhost status-for cultivars with 50% or more 'smooth cayenne' parentage.
  • Vapor heat-for cultivars other than 50% 'smooth cayenne'. fruit core temperature heated by saturated water vapor to 44.4 degrees C (112 degrees F). Hold fruit temperature at 44.4 degrees F for 8.75 hours, then cool immediately.

Rambutan

  • High temperature forced air proposed-raise internal temperature measured at the seed surface to >47.2 degrees C (117 degrees F) during a period of > 1 hour, and hold for 20 minutes at > 47.2 degrees C.
  • Irradiation-250 Gy-treatment carried out in an approved facility in Hawaii or in non-fruit fly supporting areas of the mainland US.

Sapodilla

  • Irradiation proposed-250 Gy-treatment carried out only in approved facility in Hawaii or in non-fruit supporting areas of the mainland US. Other conditions apply.

Information from Quarantine Updates, USDA-ARS Tropical Fruit, Vegetable & Ornamental Crop Research Laboratory, Hilo, Hawaii. Issue 1, July 21, 1998. Compiled by Dr. Peter Follett, Research Entomologist, Quarantine Research Unit. (808)959-4303, FAX 959-5470 or email: follett@aloha.net


 

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